Within a Mandorla

There is a small class of events within the gospels that are treated in a special manner by iconographers. This special treatment reflects the language of Scripture as well. In the icons of the Transfiguration, Pascha and the Ascension, there is a particular artistic device used called a Mandorla. Sometimes circular, sometimes almost star-shaped, it serves as something of a “parenthesis” within an icon. What is being set in the parenthesis is an event which somehow transcends what most of us think of as normal. Revealed in the context of a mandorla is that which we know by the revelation of Scripture but which might not have been witnessed by the human eye – or – if witnessed – somehow transcended the normal bounds of vision.

In the icon of the Transfiguration, the transfigured Christ stands within the mandorla. The Church’s hymns remark on this in their own manner:

You were transfigured on the mountain, O Christ God,
revealing Your glory to Your disciples as far as they could bear it.
Let Your everlasting Light also shine upon us sinners,
through the prayers of the Theotokos.
O Giver of Light, glory to You!

In this text for the Troparion (Hymn) for the Feast of the Transfiguration, Christ’s glory is described as having been revealed to his disciples “as far as they could bear it.”

The Kontakion of the Feast carries the same message:

On the Mountain You were Transfigured, O Christ God
And Your disciples beheld Your glory as far as they could see it;
So that when they would behold You crucified,
They would understand that Your suffering was voluntary,
And would proclaim to the world,
That You are truly the Radiance of the Father!

The disciples are described in the Scriptures as having been “afraid.” St. Peter speaks of building three tabernacles, “because he did not know what to say.” The experience is more than even the words of Scripture can express.

The depiction of the Ascension in iconography has this same artistic device. Some would perhaps wonder why an event that is described in a prosaic manner “a cloud received him from their sight” should need to be framed within the parentheses of a mandorla. Of course, this description is given only in the book of Acts. Mark and Luke simply say that he was “carried up into heaven.” We are at a place where language has a limit. Indeed, Mark says that he was “carried up into heaven and seated at the right hand of God.” This last formula is a creedal confession – but not an eyewitness description. That Christ was taken up and that He is seated at the right hand of the Father is the faith and dogma of the Church. But the Church knows this in a mystical manner and not in the manner of a newspaper reporter.

To acknowledge this is not to weaken the witness of Scripture or to make a concession to the historical uncertainty of liberalism. It is simply to recognize the nature of the Biblical witness. The iconographic witness of the Church affirms this – placing the Ascension of Christ within a mandorla – recognizing that this will only be known and understood by the mystical knowledge of faith (and by faith I do not mean an intellectual leap of judgment). I will return to this matter of faith shortly.

Very similar to this event is Christ’s Descent into Hades, the traditional icon of Christ’s Pascha. In this icon we see what is referenced in several places within the Scriptures and upheld in the Church’s dogma – that Christ descended into Hades and “trampled down death by death, and upon those in the tombs bestowed life.” But when we confess this cornerstone of our faith we are not reciting what is known by eyewitness account. Eyewitnesses see Christ’s crucifixion and eyewitnesses place Him in the tomb. Eyewitnesses return to the tomb on early Sunday morning and find the tomb open and empty.

The resurrected Christ appears to his disciples. In St. Paul’s recitation of the “tradition” (for that is the word he uses to describe his recitation, we hear:

For I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received, that Christ died for our sins in accordance with the scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day in accordance with the scriptures, and that he appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve.Then he appeared to more than five hundred brethren at one time, most of whom are still alive, though some have fallen asleep. Then he appeared to James, then to all the apostles (1 Corinthians 15:3-7).

There are interesting descriptions that accompany the Scriptural witness of Christ’s resurrection appearances. St. Mark says:

After this he appeared in another form to two of them, as they were walking into the country. And they went back and told the rest, but they did not believe them (Mark 16:12-13).

This, of course, is St. Mark’s brief account of the encounter with Christ on the road to Emmaus, described in detail in St. Luke’s gospel. We could add to that St. Mary Magdalen’s mistaking the resurrected Christ for “the gardener” until he speaks her name.

Such statements are not accidental “slips of the tongue” in which the gospel writers leave clues that indicate doubts about the reality of the resurrection. This is a silly conclusion drawn by some modern, liberal scholars. The gospels are carefully written. It is absurd to assume anything accidental within their pages.

What we have instead is a “verbal mandorla,” a description that points to a reality that impinges upon our reality but which has a depth that transcends anything we could imagine. This is the manifestation of the Kingdom of God in our midst.

This brings me back to the question of faith. There is a form of Christian literalism which belongs to a secular culture. The world is rendered only in a secularized, objective manner. Nothing is ever set within a mandorla. There is no perception of the mystery which has come among us in our Lord, God and Savior Jesus Christ. In such a form of Christianity, faith is simply a description of what someone accepts as a set of “facts” in the same manner that we accept or reject what we read in a newspaper, etc. The facts are as static and empty as our perception. No change need happen in the witness of such facts. Either it happened and you saw it, or it did not happen. But the Scriptures themselves indicate that the nature of the witness has a radically different character:

Now the eleven disciples went to Galilee, to the mountain to which Jesus had directed them. And when they saw him they worshiped him; but some doubted (Matthew 28:16-17).

If Christ appears to them, how is it that some doubted? The Biblical witness would never have allowed such a statement if it was trying to defend the modern literalism of secularized Christianity. Instead, the witness of Christ points us towards the depth of the mystery that is the truth of our relationship with risen Christ. We know Him and perceive Him not simply through a set of intellectual arguments, or even simply through our trust in reliability of historical witness. A “faith” which is founded on argument, no matter how sound the argument, still fails to change the one who accepts it. The result of such “faith” is opinion, not true faith.

True faith ultimately requires a union, a participation, in the very life of the risen Christ. Thus, we are not Baptized into opinions, but into the very death and resurrection of Christ. To use the language of icons, our life is plunged into a mandorla which is nothing other than the Kingdom of God. We are called to live within that parenthetical state – where our lives constant refer and point to the reality which has now filled us. Such a life transcends the literalism of doubt and opinion and enters into a union with God that is itself a witness to the coming of the Kingdom. It is the banishment of secularism and affirmation of the living truth of Christ.

I would not dare to shake the faith of any nor suggest an element of doubt with regard to the events of Christ’s Transfiguration, Ascension or His Descent into Hades. Instead I want to push us towards a deeper perception and participation in those realities – for this is the very root of the Christian life.

The Fathers taught us: “Icons do with color what Scripture does with words.” The iconic grammar of the mandorla, points us to the great mysteries made known to us in Scripture and make it clear that such mysteries may be known and entered into. Glory to God!

About Fr. Stephen Freeman

Fr. Stephen is a retired Archpriest of the Orthodox Church in America, Pastor Emeritus of St. Anne Orthodox Church in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. He is also author of Everywhere Present: Christianity in a One-Storey Universe, and Face to Face: Knowing God Beyond Our Shame, as well as the Glory to God podcast series on Ancient Faith Radio.





19 responses to “Within a Mandorla”

  1. orrologion Avatar

    Fr. Nicholas Solak pointed out that in the Ascension icon you reproduce here, there is also an exchange of colors meant to signify the exchange of heaven and earth. White and gold is normally associated with the upper, heavenly realm while more subdued tones are associated with the lower, terrestrial realm. However, in this icon, the subdued tone of the mandorla and the angels above and the white of the angels below preach the ascension/descent of Christ that is fulfilled in this feast. Part of what we cannot see is our human nature now sitting at (or ‘as’ in some recensions) the right hand of the Father.

  2. Ruth Ann Avatar

    I have learned about icons in the past, and this post is deepening my understanding. Thank you.

    Although I am a Latin Rite Catholic, I learn so much from reading your blog posts, Fr. Stephan. I sure do wish both sides of Christianity, East and West, would reunite! I think the integration of both our spiritualities would be very enriching.

  3. fatherstephen Avatar

    Thank you for this added commentary – icons not only do with color what Scripture does with words – it does so in a richness that would often take volumes! God has gone up with a shout!

  4. Micah Avatar

    Well writ Father Stephen.

    In these icons, the Mandorla is always the universe which Christ fills!

  5. David Hanson Avatar
    David Hanson

    Thanks for what you wrote about the Mandorla. It is something to look for in icons. I like the idea of icons being Scriptures in pictures; and the Mandorla being the emphasis of the important doctrines of the Church with in the icons.

  6. Dean Arnold Avatar

    An excellent explanation of why talk of the mandorla is not simply more liberal speak. Apparently, the mandorla does not lessen the miraculous significance, it greatly expands it.

    And, yes, it makes sense that if the Evangelists were worried about Karl Barth, they would have left out those pesky doubting passages.

    Thanks for taking the time to write this insightful post.

  7. practicinghuman Avatar

    I’m so grateful for a chance to learn more about the beyond-literal truths of faith. I have met so many people who believe that looking for a spiritual or theological meaning in Scriptures is paramount to flagrant heresy. Thank you for reminding of us where the Scriptures tell us that we see dimly, even though we see.

  8. Tawni Avatar

    Father, bless! Is there any significance to the shape of the mandorla? Before we had converted, my husband and I already owned several icons (of varying levels of traditionality 🙂 ), and my sister, an art student, pointed out that the eye-shaped mandorla in our icon of the Transfiguration was the exact same shape as the table in our icon of the Mystical Supper. We thought that had some pretty awesome implications! But I notice that all these mandorlas are round.

  9. fatherstephen Avatar

    They will vary in shape. I am not aware of a particular meaning attached to the shape – but that may be my ignorance.

  10. Karen Avatar

    Dear Father, bless! Your teaching about the mandorla in icons here being a call to faith in its true biblical sense as participation and union reminds me of the teaching about Scripture that one cannot begin to genuinely “understand” the Scriptures apart from putting them into practice. One has to begin to live according to the Scriptures if one is to begin to understand them aright. To reduce the written Scriptures to sets of propositional statements about God and how He works is not to understand them at all in any truly meaningful sense (that is, as you have pointed out, in a way that changes us into Christ’s likeness). Indeed this is a source of great error in various sects and cults and in the modern secular and liberal notions of what Scripture means. It seems to me it is ithe result of doing just this that has led in the West to so many conflicting theological systems for understanding the Bible.

  11. Margaret Avatar

    Thank you for taking the time to write and post this, Fr. Stephen!
    I especially appreciate this paragraph (and will keep it and the whole article to re-read):
    True faith ultimately requires a union, a participation, in the very life of the risen Christ. Thus, we are not Baptized into opinions, but into the very death and resurrection of Christ. To use the language of icons, our life is plunged into a mandorla which is nothing other than the Kingdom of God. We are called to live within that parenthetical state – where our lives constant refer and point to the reality which has now filled us. Such a life transcends the literalism of doubt and opinion and enters into a union with God that is itself a witness to the coming of the Kingdom. It is the banishment of secularism and affirmation of the living truth of Christ.

  12. Micah Avatar


    Your post had me looking closely at an Eastern icon that has been with us for about 15 years now. It is an old one.

    The shape of the Mandorla (Italian for almond) is still, here, almond-like although the apex has taken on the form of a Middle Eastern arch.

    The Mandorla metaphor would be an allusion to continuity — of the Levite priesthood in particular, the Tabernacle of Testimony and the budding of Aaron’s staff, first into blossoms and later into almonds (Numbers 17:21–23).

    Even the icon of the Dormition of the Theotokos has a Mandorla but the cross is Russian.

  13. Darlene Avatar

    Thank you, Father for such an indepth article. Our faith truly is participatipn in the life of Christ. To look at it any other way is to objectify what life in Chirst is. Mental exercises of grasping and utilizing facts about our Lord Jesus, without putting our faith into practice through spiritual ascesis, is of little value. Such mental exercises are likened more to book learning and have little to no effect upon our soul. Whatever motivation we may have for reading and studying, it must be guided by the desire to participate in the life of our Lord and to be in communion with Him. Otherwise it becomes knowledge that remains in the head separated from the heart. It was for no reason then, that our Lord said to the Pharisees, “You search the Scriptures because you think in them you have life, yet you refuse to come to Me.”

  14. Darlene Avatar


    You mentioned Father Nicholas Solak. He is my priest at Holy Trinity. Do you attend Holy Trinity?

    If you prefer to be anonymous, I understand. However, you now have my curiosity peaked. 🙂

  15. NN Avatar


    God bless this blog. It has shown me the beauty of Christ and tonight, possibly saved me from further self destruction. I can’t utter words to explain this. Modern society is such a lonesome place.

    In Christ.

  16. […] reflections on icons:  https://glory2godforallthings.com/2010/04/21/the-truth-of-an-icon-2 and https://glory2godforallthings.com/2010/05/14/within-a-mandorla/ I add these because Father Stephen has a lot more understanding of this subject, and articulates it […]

  17. […] above owes much to Fr Stephen’s related post Within a Mandorla. This entry was posted in Iconography, Icons of Christ. Bookmark the permalink. ← […]

  18. iconreader Avatar

    Dear Father,

    Just to add to your post, the concentric bands of shading seen on mandorlas almost always show them getting *darker* towards the centre. The icons you posted show this too. I believe this is an allusion to the “cloud of unknowing” that Christ’s disciples passed through in order to hear the voice of the Father.

  19. Andrew Avatar

    The things of heaven do not easily lend themselves to the conceptual. In such cases, it is often better to remain silent. Thank you once again for this revelation Father.

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