The Morality of Christmas

Morality is tricky business in what is an extremely moral society. I pray my readers to be patient with me as I explain what I think is the problem. First, I will note that morality is all that is left when the most fundamental grounds of a culture have been destroyed. We indeed live in just such a time, hence the rise of a vehemence in the moral life. Second, I will suggest that what we as Christians must strive for within ourselves is less and less of a moral grounding in our lives and a greater grounding in that which is – all of which requires some explaining.

Two men building a fence along the edge of a cliff will not have an argument about which side to stand on as they do their work. Gravity presents its own argument and its word is final. Indeed, it is not an argument – it is real. This is the nature of Christian moral claims. But our modern world has altered this understanding.

Today, we use the term “moral” to describe behaviors that adhere to some particular standard or guide. As such, everybody is “moral” and lives according to some form of morality. People do not behave in a random manner. Everyone has thoughts and opinions about their own behavior and the behavior of others (no matter how much they may say otherwise). Those thoughts and opinions need not be based in anything other than opinions and feelings – indeed, most morality in our modern world has no other basis. And this is the point.

The Christian understanding of morality is not arbitrary in the least. There is nothing in the whole of the faith’s teaching whose ground is simply “God said so.” Nothing within the Christian moral life is arbitrary. What God commands is our good and He directs us according to the goodness of our existence and the creation in which we live.

If anyone asks the reason for any action within the Christian life, a good answer, rooted in our own well-being and the well-being of others should be forthcoming. The commandments of Christ do not simply tell us what we should do, but in their telling, reveal the very nature of reality to us.

The so-called breakdown of morality in the modern world is not a moral problem. What has broken down is not morality, but any agreed notion about the nature of the world. Our perceptions of reality itself have shattered into disparate fragments. And there is a strange aching for morality, a tormented desire for goodness in some form or guise. But as the ground of reality has shattered, so has the possibility of moral conversation. We shout in hopes of being heard.

When we lose a common understanding of reality itself, all that is left is bald assertion. The morality of the modern world is simply power. It is, in one form or another, the use of violence (or its threat) that argues. Certain positions and behaviors are extolled while others are not only condemned but increasingly demonized. In the baseless morality of modernity, those with whom we disagree are not simply wrong: they are evil. This is the only conclusion that can be reached when what is right is established solely through choice. If what is good is only good because I choose it, then choosing otherwise must be seen as evil and named as such.

Classical Christianity, on the other hand, need demonize no one. No human being can ever be the “enemy” (Eph. 6:12). What is right and what is true is not a matter of choice – it is established by reality itself. In our modern setting, many (even most) will argue with the nature and character of reality. Some will even assert that reality is nothing more than a social construct. However, if something is true because it is real, then it ultimately makes its own argument. You don’t have to defend gravity.

In the confusion of our present times, however, it is easy to overlook the true morality that God and creation uphold. An absolutely essential element of that reality is expressed in the mystery of Christmas. God becomes a man and is birthed into our world. This reveals human beings as bearers of the image of God and dictates the very reason for the manner we are commanded to treat others. More than this, the Incarnation of Christ reveals the reality of life-as-communion (indeed, the whole work of Christ makes this known). It tells us that when we harm another, we not only harm the image of God, but we, in fact, do harm to our own selves.

St. Paul appeals to this understanding when he speaks about marriage:

So husbands ought to love their own wives as their own bodies; he who loves his wife loves himself. For no one ever hated his own flesh, but nourishes and cherishes it, just as the Lord does the church. For we are members of His body, of His flesh and of His bones. (Eph 5:28-30)

This same reality is revealed in Christ’s statement: “Inasmuch as you have done it unto the least of these my brethren, you did it unto me” (Matt. 25:40). It is very much worth pondering that Christ does not say that what we do to others is “as if” we had done it to Him. No. He reveals the utter Divine solidarity of the Incarnation. He is the other – each of them, everywhere and always. This reality undergirds the whole of His “ethical” teaching. To love as Christ loves begins with recognizing Him in the fullness of the Incarnation.

Tragically, modern versions of morality, rooted in the will (elevating free choice to the primary position within all things), are always moving towards violence. There is nothing to which one can point other than “my choice,” to justify anything. And my choice only has power when I am willing to exercise the violence required to give it power. The more our culture moves towards the morality of the will, the more violent and coercive it will become.

The Incarnation of Christ is without violence (on the part of God). There is no coercion. From the beginning, Mary is asked and yields herself to be the mother of the Savior with joy. All that is endured, up to and including the Cross are freely accepted and not coerced. But the coming of Christ is not strange for creation – it does not even offer the violence required of accommodation. St. John says of Christ, “He came to His own people.” The world was created through Christ, the Logos, and bears His image within all things. Far from doing violence, His coming reveals things to be what they truly are. All things find their true home in Him.

This is the morality of Christmas – all things becoming what they truly are.  This is peace on earth and good will towards all of mankind.


About Fr. Stephen Freeman

Fr. Stephen is a priest of the Orthodox Church in America, Pastor Emeritus of St. Anne Orthodox Church in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. He is also author of Everywhere Present and the Glory to God podcast series.





137 responses to “The Morality of Christmas”

  1. Byron Avatar

    So wonderful! Thank you, Father! Glory to God!

  2. Paul Avatar

    I am confused. How would you describe the Turkish armies that captured Constantinople in 1453 and enslaved tens of thousands of Orthodox and killed even more in the celebration of “Allah” victory? Would these Turkish armies be enemies of Orthodoxy? Or, how about the Germany Gestapo and SS who arrested tortured, killed or sent to Concentration Camps Christians (Protestants, Catholics and Orthodox) who refused to acknowledge Hitler and his movement as the new god? (The German student White Rose movement included both Lutherans, Catholics and one Orthodox Christians who were all killed.) None of these violent humans are our enemies? None of them are evil?

  3. Mark Bratton Avatar
    Mark Bratton

    Father Stephen, thank you very much for this reflection. It may provide the basis of my Christmas Eve sermon. I am an Anglican priest who teaches medical law and ethics in a secular context at a good English university. I would be grateful if you were able to recommend some reading in the area of Orthodox moral theology, an area with which I am unfamiliar but would like to get better acquainted.

  4. Helen Avatar

    Good morning Father.
    Regarding the following: “God becomes a man and is birthed into our world. This reveals human beings as bearers of the image of God …”
    Perhaps I’m so immersed in the paradigm of being individualistic, I do not understand how God becoming man reveals all human beings as bearers of His image. Would you say more about this please?

  5. Karen Avatar

    Paul, I’m a bit startled that this is the burning question on your mind after reading this whole article. It seems you are wanting to argue with the Apostle Paul (Eph. 6:12) and maybe Jesus? (Matt. 5:43-48), not just Fr. Stephen.

    Maybe this prayer of an Orthodox Bishop who suffered under the Nazis will serve as food for thought about the implications of the Gospel for our understanding and attitudes towards those who make themselves our human enemies:

  6. Kristin Avatar

    Thank you! This addresses indirectly many issues arising amongst my friends with adult children. Your words are setting some ideas in their proper places for me.

  7. Agata Avatar

    Thank you for sharing the prayer. It’s a wonderful site, full of beautiful prayers…

    Please forgive me being off topic here, but maybe Father (or somebody else here) knows…
    The Trebnik is supposed to have a “prayer for animals”. Met Anthony Bloom, in one of his recorded talks, mentions a prayer he read to a mouse (after which all mice in the house he lived in left). I have been searching for this prayer ever since, with no luck.. 🙂

  8. Fr. Stephen Freeman Avatar

    If you would look up the Scripture reference, you would see why I say this. St. Paul says: “For we do not wrestle against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this age, against spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places.” (Eph 6:12 NKJ) The various actions of evil that you describe, and they are certainly evil, are the direct result of our true enemies, the spiritual wickedness in the heavenly places. Those who do those things have clearly been victimized by these evil powers to do their will. These human beings must also be the objects of our mercy and our love, not just of our hatred and opposition. You cannot hate a human being in the manner that you can hate a demon – for they are not demons, no matter how demonic their actions. But the spiritual wickedness in the heavenly places does not care who is right and wrong. They can destroy us just as well by our hatred of “evil” human beings. You have to step back and see where the real battle lies.

  9. Fr. Stephen Freeman Avatar

    Joseph Woodwill’s small book is an excellent overview and will likely suggest further directions for you.

  10. Fr. Stephen Freeman Avatar

    In the Incarnation, Christ is not doing something strange or alien to God. God is not becoming a rock or a tree. Rather, He becomes what He had prepared to become from the beginning. From the beginning He made us “in His image,” and this is only fulfilled and thus revealed in its fullness in the Incarnation of Christ.

    Before the Incarnation, it might have been possible to view human beings as mere animals, or simply animate objects, no different than an amoeba. There are some in our modern world who have reverted to such a view. The Incarnation is a revelatory event as much as anything else. It reveals the love of God. It reveals the dignity of human beings. We are, as the fathers said, “Capable of bearing God.” This is unique to human beings but only revealed in the God/Man Christ Jesus.

    Is that helpful?

  11. Mario Naziris Avatar
    Mario Naziris

    Yet another inspirational and thought provoking article!

    The morality we have today has been around for a long time. And we know it’s not true morality. It is a morality based on pride rather than true integrity found only in Christ.

    Today we have a fake morality based on individual will and fashion according to the masses. Counterfeit religion in which the world abounds will also produce counterfeit morality.

    What a world we live in when immorality has been accepted as moral.
    Annihilate and hate your enemy; abort your children; euthanise the elderly and much more; all in the name of a foreign morality

    True morality is the manifestation or Birth of Christ in our hearts, where love forbids such actions.

  12. Paul Avatar

    Karen, thank you for that beautiful prayer. I have tried my entire life (I was a soldier for over 30 years) to not hate those who were my enemy or adversary. As a professional soldier, I knew very few men (there were some exceptions, and they were exceptions) who took satisfaction in killing in combat. Those who I know who had a lot of combat and saw a lot of death were always sickened by it, even when it was killing enemy soldiers who were trying to kill them. I am sure the same was the case with the Orthodox soldiers who defended Constantinople. Those soldiers were trying to defend Orthodox women and children from a horrible fate. They were (from my reading) experienced warriors and had long abandoned the idea that combat was a glorious thing.

  13. Nicholas Stephen Griswold Avatar
    Nicholas Stephen Griswold

    Excellent article. Just as morals are relativistic in the Modern Project so is Truth. All the latest revelations about the behavior of those in positions of power shows that their versions of truth and morals fit their definitions thus allowing their behaviors.
    To add my two cents to the discussion of whether or not people are evil, I believe one can say that their actions are evil but as the line between good and evil runs through every human heart it is difficult to declare a person evil and not condemn one’s self as such.
    Your post also explains well why some get so angry when others do not behave as they would like them to.

  14. Mario Naziris Avatar
    Mario Naziris

    Nicholas Stephen Griswold

    Very well said, important not to forget our own corruptible nature.

  15. Will Avatar

    Great article, Father Stephen, as usual. I’m a longtime reader, first-time commenter.

    I work in a liberal mainline Protestant church (as a seminarian) and find myself drawn to Orthodoxy, largely due to your writings. In particular, I’m drawn to what you write about in this post: a realist(ic) approach to the Law of God in contrast to the Western, legal/forensic approach I’m used to. ‘That which is’, as you put it.

    Lately, I’ve struggled with how to lovingly address someone in the congregation who has a transgender family member–a child, in fact. Since my denomination took a confusing stance on all things LGBT (basically affirming everyone’s varied interpretations of scripture and ‘bound consciences’), this topic tends to be a bit of a minefield. My approach to the situation has been to recognize the dignity of everyone involved and to emphasize the importance of mutual respect. But, at times, this approach feels like a betrayal of what I know to be true.

    I agree that reality–like gravity–needs no defense. But I also know there is a time to speak just as there is a time to keep silence.

    Father, do you have a word for me?

  16. Helen Avatar

    Yes, thank you Father. It goes back to the beginning!

  17. Chris M Avatar
    Chris M

    I don’t think it’s fair to say modern morals are “always moving toward violence” simply because they are “elevating free choice to the primary position within all things.” After all, wouldn’t the primacy of free will indicate it would be unethical to impede upon the free will of others by kidnapping, enslavement, murder, etc? Doubt it exists, but I’d love to see data so we could compare the violent deaths/enslavements caused by those adhering to a divine command system of ethics compared to those deaths caused by those adhering to a system “elevating free choice.” No disrespect toward orthodoxy nor toward an orthodox system of ethics, but that general approach to ethics has led to (or, at least, been used to excuse) a significant amount of violence, has it not?

    The human being as the bearer of the image of God is fascinating though! How then can there ever be a just war?

  18. Tikhon Avatar

    Father, bless! Would you please elaborate on the role of PERCEPTION this part of your essay: ” However, if something is true because it is real, then it ultimately makes its own argument. You don’t have to defend gravity.” What role does perception play in this? What is that Buddhist/Hindu parable of the blind men and the elephant…?

  19. Fr. Stephen Freeman Avatar

    Certainly problematic. First, reality itself is articulate and will eventually make itself known, though that could be fairly unpleasant – even as “consequences” keep adding up. You’re a staff member, not the Pastor. I don’t think I would do anything pastorally that runs counter to the Pastor, though I would not do anything that runs counter to my own conscience. Which means that lots of times, you don’t do anything.

    Mostly, you pray (when you’re not sure of what to do).

  20. victoria Avatar


    In other words we find what we seek? So that morally speaking when we look for the bad, don’t we find it even amidst what is good and vice versa?

    Is that what you mean?

    Truly God is the only who judges man and searches hearts rightly. And thanks be to God for that!!!

    BTW – your name/ email tikhon, is populated in the fields of my computer below.

    Very strange indeed!

  21. Fr. Stephen Freeman Avatar

    Chris M,
    What I meant by “always moving towards violence” is that, if only my will is the definition of morality, then I can only make it so by asserting it against other wills – thus, violence. But you changed the rules of the game, making an appeal to what is ethical/unethical. If the ethical/unethical has a primary position, then we’re talking about something that has not yet progressed to the point I’m suggesting.

    It is worth noting, that when Great Prince Vladimir of Kiev converted to Orthodoxy (mind you, he was just a glorified Viking), he did several things: he outlawed torture; he outlawed capital punishment; he tithed all of his property. That, to me, was an Orthodox conversion fo a ruler. Though it is all too rare in the annals of history. It is interesting, if you research the matter, to see how Orthodox rulers wrestled with the problem of capital punishment (rather than automatically assuming it as a given).

  22. Fr. Stephen Freeman Avatar

    If there really, really is a cliff, no amount of perceiving will make it ok to walk off of it. Perception, however, is an undoubted part of the human experience – though it is not the sum total of human experience (Berkeley was wrong). All arguments are resolved at the end of things, when finally we all stand naked before the judgment seat of Christ. Reality prevails.

  23. KC Avatar

    Fr. Stephen,

    Thanks for this wonderful message. I’m in the process of becoming Orthodox, thanks in large part to your writings. A brief question: I have no icons in my home — which one should I get first? What prayers should I say in front of it? I know the Jesus prayer, Lord’s prayer, and I have a pocket-size Orthodox prayer book. Any advice would be appreciated.

  24. Chris M Avatar
    Chris M

    I didn’t “automatically assume it as a given,” Father. I wasn’t even necessarily referring to orthodoxy in my post, but other branches of Christianity and other religions. I meant to be very respectful toward orthodoxy in my comment as my limited knowledge of the EOC is that they have more often faced persecution rather than being the persecutors and were generally far kinder in their approach to Christianity than the western church barring, I think, some attacks on the Bogomils or Paulicians or some other heretics – I’m not even sure about that. But, yes, I’d actually heard the story of Vladimir of Kiev before (perhaps in one of your older posts, I can’t remember)! He sounds like an incredible man and an ideal ruler. I only meant to point out that I sometimes find the divine command theory of ethics frightening (when espoused by the wrong folks). I mean, growing up here in the south, people have used the bible to endorse racism and slavery. I find that terrifying.

    And, I feel like I’ve insulted you. I apologize. I certainly didn’t mean to offend anyone with my comment. I’m here as a learner.

  25. Fr. Stephen Freeman Avatar

    Chris M,
    In that respect, I fear that kind of authority more than anything. Once a ruler/government has identified itself as the guardian or deputed authority of something ultimate (the Divine) there is no reigning in of the authority.

    I actually don’t trust any government very far – because the nature of its power is pretty much coercive by definition. I prefer a “kinder, gentler” coercion. I think at present what kindness and gentleness we see is governed primarily by what can be passed off as “polite.” Of course, once our benevolent powers move away from these native shores, they can be as coercive and murderous as any regime (apparently).

    I don’t think there is a good Christian theory for government – at least I’ve not seen one.

  26. Victor Avatar

    Thanks for this Fr.
    It makes me think of how often we fall into the trap of modernity and attempt to assert authority over others instead of revealing Christ to them.

  27. Karen Avatar

    Paul, thank you for your service. It was Fr. Stephen who introduced me to that beautiful prayer on his blog several years ago. Your comments about how even having to kill an enemy in combat creates a wound reminds me that this is precisely how Orthodox tradition handles the matter (the soldier must bring this to Confession for healing). I’m very glad it was not the Orthodox Church that produced or endorsed the “just war” theory. It seems to be something that cannot be found to actually exist in the real world, though there may be relatively lesser and greater evils within war and politics.

    I confess though I recognize the beauty of the truth of St. Nicolai Velimirovich’s prayer, I have far to go in actually living it!

  28. Victor Avatar

    On the topic of Orthodoxy and war here is a beautiful article which captures many of the relevant issues:

  29. Esmée La Fleur Avatar

    Will – i have struggle with the gender issue too, having many friends who are homosexual. I do not wish to contract Father’s excellent advice to you, but i did wish to share something that helped to understand how to view it from an Orthodox Christian perspective. I was part of a contact on this topic one day while eating lunch with the Sisters of the Holy Assumption Monastery in Calistoga, California. The Abbess, Mother Melania, said – by way of analogy – that she has a very strong predilection towards being mean to other people, but that doesn’t maje it right for her – as a follower of Christ – to ACT on that predilection. When I asked my parish priest about this subject, he told me that the Orthodox Church does not deny a person their sexual orientation experience or ask them to change it; rather, it simply asks them not to ACT on it. This may mean living a celebate life, either in the world or in a monastery, if they find themselves unable to transcendend the nature of their attraction.

  30. Esmée La Fleur Avatar

    Typos (darn autocorrect!)
    1) “contract” = “contradict”
    2) helped *me*
    3) “contact” = “conversation”
    Please forgive me. I obviously need to work on my proof-reading skills. 😜

  31. Michael Bauman Avatar
    Michael Bauman

    Chris M. Having studied the approach to war extensively with my son I can say there is no just war. War is always the result of sin and evil.

    However, there maybe a way for those in war to act honorably, mercifully and with integrity even when they find themselves in direct confrontation with an evil that should be confronted.

    Military organizations try to train such responses out of their people but as Paul says, that is quite difficult.

    Real humanity reveals God just as the Incarnate God reveals real humanity.

    The kenoticism often seen in war should not be used, but often is, to justify and glorify war. Kenoticism is the natural human response to suffering and pain.

    Unfortunately ethics are a bit like statistics — they can be used to justify anything. At best they are secondary points.

    Fr. Stephan is quite right the worship of the individual will always leads to violence. It is fundamental to nihilism and the seduction of the nothing. There are simply no good arguments against what Fr. Stephen writes here. None. Let his statements rest in your mind awhile and percolate to your heart.

    God save us and have mercy on us.

  32. Chris M Avatar
    Chris M

    I think I understand, Father. It goes back to what we discussed regarding the ring of power. Your point is, if I understand you correctly, that when I’m talking about the actions of the powerful, I should look past the system of ethics those folks supposedly espoused to the nature of those who’ve been in power (or the nature of power itself). Divine command theory is not necessarily the problem, it’s generally the folks interpreting the divine command! Thank you for being patient with me.

    I don’t want to take up too much space on the comments board, but Will brings up a topic that has been a particularly difficult one for me as well, although it appears I stand on the opposite end of the spectrum from him. Part of me has been drawn to orthodoxy, but another part has been repelled because I feel that converting means I am betraying or somehow condemning a beloved relative who is a homosexual. I’m a social worker and from a scientific/biological point-of-view I see nothing “wrong” with his behavior. Theologically, however, I know I’m not educated enough to argue. I’m here to learn. If someone could explain to me, theologically, why homosexuality is wrong, perhaps, I could understand.

  33. Chris M Avatar
    Chris M

    Michael Bauman – thanks for your response. I’ve never been in war, nor have I studied it thoroughly, so
    I appreciate your input. And, regarding your statements about arguing with Father Stephen: I don’t come to the page to argue, but I’m so ignorant concerning Orthodoxy (and I’m so curious about its finer theological points) I feel I have to ask these questions. I’ve mentioned this before, but I grew up in a secular household. Orthodoxy, its rules, its culture – it’s all new to me. I’m trying to learn. I learn through conversation. I don’t mean to offend anyone, but perhaps this is the wrong medium to get my questions answered. Apologies to all for misusing the space.

  34. Dee of St Hermans Avatar
    Dee of St Hermans

    Chris M,
    There are others here who can answer better than I, but I will mention (despite my neophyte level of Orthodoxy) that when you ask about “wrong” in relation to the Orthodox faith, there is quite a distinction from the understanding as it might be described by other groups who do not have a truly traditional understanding of Christianity. “Wrong” is typically treated as a legalistic concept by others, but in Orthodoxy sin has a greater association with death than what one might typically mean by “sin”. The approach in Orthodoxy that is different, is that it is ontological in regards to our image of God that it is in us. For now I will not go into the science side of your question. But the ascription to “what science says” about homosexuality is typically co-opted by both sides of the political divide, and typically incorrect, or mis-stated.

  35. Chris M Avatar
    Chris M

    Thanks for the response, Dee. You’re right, as far as I understand it, regarding “wrongness” and Orthodoxy. Fr. Stephen and I have had a couple of conversations about how I’ll have to get over my legalistic understanding of Christianity if I’m to be Orthodox. I’ll admit, it’s difficult sometimes. Even now I’m habitually referring to things in terms of right and wrong. Ugh. Smh.

    As for the scientific research, if you can find me recent peer-reviewed research that there is something “wrong” or harmful in homosexuality, we’ll talk about the science, but I suspect you’ll have trouble. But, as I mentioned, I’m more interested in learning about the church’s perspective. I want to understand why homosexuality = sin = death.

  36. Philip Avatar

    Chris M,
    Fr. Thomas Hopko of blessed memory has an compelling teaching on “Sin” available from SVS Press. He’s speaking to people in the church, and not as a scientist, but makes the case that we all come from brokenness, and even fallen DNA. As such, he suggests that, yes, homosexual inclination is completely natural. Natural — in that it comes from our broken selves, as do greed, selfishness, etc. Normal vs. normative. I came away with a much more compassionate framework for the whole complex reality.

    Archimandrite Vassilios Papavassiliou comes to the same conclusion as Fr. Hopko with a very pastoral plea to pray earnestly for gay Christians who choose celibate lives. A tough calling.

  37. Michael Bauman Avatar
    Michael Bauman

    Chris M, did not mean to imply you are arguing. Question always. Many many questions. I am quite blessed even though I did not grow up Orthodox or even Christian, my parents were a generation older than most people my age. My Dad was literally a pioneer whose father homesteaded in New Mexico territory. They lived in a sod hut for quite a while. I missed a good bit of modernity. My Dad experienced the reality of God in His creation with the inter-connectedness of all things and taught it always. My Mom too.

    The Orthodox Church is the only place my brother and I could be at home and honor our parents.

  38. Fr. Stephen Freeman Avatar

    It is very difficult to find peer-reviewed material on the subject that is very trustworthy, in my opinion. There are conclusions that we “need” to reach in our present cultural construct that are so powerful that research is very easily skewed. So, I could not reliably suggest that path as a helpful way to approach the question.

    I would maintain that there is far more overwhelming evidence that points to cultural/environmental mechanism in human sexuality. We are not nearly “hard-wired” for this or that so much as we are nurtured. As someone who has heard confessions for 36 years, I would say that my experience echoes that.

    When someone says that they were “born” one way or another – I find it unbelievable, simply because I think we are much closer to being asexual as a child. None of us remembers earlier than about three – by which time many things within an environment are already set.

    I see almost all human sexuality as damaged in one way or another. It’s a very complex part of our social/psychological makeup – so much so that thinking in terms of “right” or “wrong” is terribly simplistic.

    The Church’s understanding does not divorce sex from the procreation and nurture of children. It obviously serves other functions, but that is its primary and obviously natural role. There is nothing about anal or oral sex that serve any function apart from pleasure, and, particularly in the case of anal, is destructive and dangerous in many cases. We’re not made to have things inserted there on a regular basis. Please forgive this graphic illustration.

    The place of sex in a marriage, apart from procreation, is its abiding role in the bond and unitive experience of marriage that strengthens the union of parents in the raising and nurturing of children – when it is at its best. It’s often not at its best.

    Same-sex relationships in their natural and proper place are called friendships. And such friendships are appropriate and important. They are not, however, helped or assisted by self-gratification, or simply the gratification of a partner. It becomes sex that never can be procreative, or support the greater place of procreation.

    The insanity of our culture seems to think that only sexually active people can be normal or healthy. If the last 60 years or so has taught us anything, it is this assumption is patently false. The sort of assumptions behind current sexual practice have destroyed families and created a culture that is simply sick and getting sicker.

    On the other hand, we are living in a reactive period in which the abuse of shame and outrageous prejudice are being met with an equally outrageous move in the other direction. The “flamboyant” displays associated with many “pride” parades are evidence of reactive behavior, to say the least.

    In this climate, it is hard to speak in a manner that is not immediately labeled in one reaction place or the other.

    Orthodoxy, as evidenced by its canons and lives of the saints, has been extremely aware of same-sex activity. It does not blush when, in the lives of the Desert Fathers, it says something like, “Two monks fell into sin.” It just treats it as sin – but doesn’t get weird or want to stone them or any such nonsense.

    Orthodoxy has a very healthy understanding of sex, I think. It presumes, for example, that all married people will refrain from sexual relations from time to time, particularly for the purpose of fasting. The assumption is that we don’t “have” to have sex. We are not slaves to our passions, nor should we be.

    By and large, all of the “desires” we experience as human beings, are distorted, such that they are not true, natural desires, but rather experienced as “passions” the misdirection of desires. We d not desire the right thing in the right measure at the right time. Instead, we become enslaved.

    Orthodox piety assumes fasting. It is normal in the Christian life. It is part of the larger discipline of the passions so that, through Christ, in the Spirit, we come to a measure of greater freedom. Essentially, Orthodoxy would say homosexual actions are expressions of the “passions” and do not draw us towards the healing that is ours in Christ. It can, indeed, be quite damaging. The same can be true of heterosexual actions as well.

    The problem in all of this, that I think I hear in your question, is a sense of “normalcy” that is, in fact, just “secular normalcy.” “If no one is hurt, then it’s not wrong.” etc.

    I strongly recommend Fr. Thomas Hopko’s little book, Christian Faith and Same-Sex Attraction. Come by the office, I’ll loan you a copy.

  39. victoria Avatar

    Father Stephen

    I read the elephant story that Tikhon posted. I had never heard it before.

    It’s interesting because while it is about different blind men encountering various (but not the same) parts of an elephant and then they are asked to determine what it is. Everyone has a different perception of what the creature is but since none of them touch more than one part of the elephant so none of them experience the encounter the same way.

    No one encounters the whole elephant so they also do t gave a full picture.

    Often I hear many things about many people (gossip! – and certainly in my life I have spread it)) and when I am around those of whom I heard negativity about many times I find it that what I heard is not at all my perception of them.

    Relating it back to your prior article about the honeless :: one person can encounter them and find the only stench /be repulsed and another find a complete blessing with that same homeless person.

    So like the blind men in the story – we are feeling only one part of the elephant / seeing one aspect of a person rather than looking at one created in His image we encounter a fragment of them – our perception of them.

    I probably didn’t explain any of that very well. And I am not trying to suggest a vagueness about right or wrong – and yes gravity is gravity – you can argue with it. But it will win.

    Interacting with people is different than interacting with gravity. Gravity is rather constant and unforgiving. People are a mystery – they love, resent, forgive, bear grudges, stumble and fall (maybe all in one day!!) and yet we are created in the image of Christ. often times in our interaction with others we do not encounter the Other because of shortcomings of either party – but it’s still there. However sometimes one does encounter and see clearly Christ in another human being You see something so good in another person and it changes everything. How can you ever look at people the same again??

    Mainly just to say God always sees the whole of each of us and that is a comfort and a reason to give thanks.

    And also, blind men should avoid cliffs and maybe get a seeing eye dog.

  40. Chris M Avatar
    Chris M

    Michael: Cool story about your dad! Sounds like he led a fascinating life! And, yes. I’ll keep questioning as long as there are priests and parishioners patient enough to bear my questioning. 🙂

    Philip: You and Fr. Stephen recommended the same book! Must be an interesting read. I may also have to see if I can find those comments from Archimandrite Vassilios Papavassiliou. Thank you for the response.

    Fr. Stephen: Thanks again for the patient explanation. I think you’re correct in that I see a sense of normalcy to it and, yes, I see homosexuality as victimless. I do, however, find your explanations regarding the passions fascinating. I’d like to learn more and I’d be happy to borrow the book by Fr. Hopko. I’ll try to drop by sometime this week.

    I hope this isn’t terrible, but the simplicity of the “two monks fell into sin” thing literally made me laugh out loud. In my line of work, I guess I’ve gotten so used to the intense, incredibly emotional reactions from evangelical protestants that discover their family members are homosexual that the seeming nonchalance of the statement just seemed humorous. Sorry.

  41. Dee of St Hermans Avatar
    Dee of St Hermans

    Thank you Fr Stephen for your full and detailed answer to Chris M. I’m printing it for the next time I’m asked, I’ll have your response to offer. I’ve encountered some of Fr Hopkins reflections on the subject online as well and found them helpful also.

  42. Eric Avatar

    These matters have been much on my mind of late, and your account of the truly moral as that which accords with reality has greatly helped me, Father Stephen. Thank you

    An observation – and forgive me if this has already been raised – but I’m the absence of any widely perceived Reality, or account thereof, does not even Truthful Morality, based in Reality usually look to Modern people like yet another arbitrary choice, and the exercise of pure power?? I guess it must, yet perhaps, insofar as we ourselves perceive Reality and are formed by it, then the moral shape of our lives bears Witness to Truth?

    I’ve tried to explain this like a master carver, who sees the form of a beautiful object in a piece of wood, and carefully uses the tools of his craft to reveal the object hidden therein. The only problem is that he is surrounded by people as it were blindfolded with equally sharp chisels and saws . . . It came to me that this is perhaps a parable of cross bearing??


  43. Debbie Avatar

    Well stated. Thank you.

  44. Laura Stanley Avatar
    Laura Stanley

    Chris M: May God bless you on your journey. I’m an Orthodox mom (used to be Lutheran) with a gay daughter, gay friends, transgender students…and I have stopped worrying about why. I pray and I love them. I also recommend Father Tom’s book; it helped me understand how to be loving and compassionate…and to look at my own sins and not another’s.

  45. Chris M Avatar
    Chris M

    Thank you, Laura. That’s very kind of you. I’m really looking forward to reading this book now. Its rare for me to find one recommended by so many people!

    And, Dee – Fr Stephen is always incredibly patient and detailed in his responses to my questions and, believe me, I have plenty! 🙂 I’m very grateful he puts up with my presence/curiosity here and has been willing to help me along in this process.

  46. Mike B Avatar
    Mike B

    Another book recommendation, this one on the Just War doctrine. As I understand it, the author, a Catholic scholar, has petitioned the Pope to do away with this doctrine.

    Killing from the Inside Out: Moral Injury and Just War. Robert Meagher.

  47. David A Kontur Avatar
    David A Kontur

    Father Stephen –
    In your discussion about modern morality this is incredibly apparent in the propaganda film that the Nazi’s created as they first came into power. The name of the film is “The Triumph of the Will.” In the film Hitler often repeats how the Germans are peace loving people. Throughout the film he repeatedly outlines a utopian future for the German people. The emphasis on discipline and appeals to morality and sacrifice (the morality of the regime) are apparent all through the film. At the end of the day – over 50 million people lost their lives and Germany and much of the European continent was devastated. What is even more sobering though is that the double speak that Hitler has often been used by many leaders… incluidng our own at times. While this is the extreme example of what you seem to be saying about modern morality, it clearly demonstrates the short steps from the morality of the will to violence against others that do not embody what I have declared as right.

  48. Tikhon Avatar

    Father, thank you for your response. I suppose in your analogy, is the cliff death (for of this reality, there is no doubt) or is the cliff something else–i.e. the existence of God/the Truth of Jesus Christ as the Son of God/Orthodoxy? For if the latter is the case, each person would have a different perspective and experience of this. While death will surely bring an answer, two people’s perspectives are critically important while living. And, unfortunately, there is no universal cliff which all can agree exists. Each religion (or lack thereof) describes the cliff differently. How can we know what is true? I see so much that makes sense from different perspectives. While the cliff analogy is so black and white, what I observe, have discussed, and have read does not reflect this. Any help is much appreciated!

  49. Kristin Avatar

    Chris M, and everyone else who asks questions and brings up sticky topics-

    I am so grateful. Orthodoxy is fairly new to me, and often the questions asked are lurking somewhere in my own mind and need addressing. Or subjects- like just war theory- ought to be reframed from with an Orthodox understanding but haven’t come to the forefront yet.

    Regarding war…where does protecting the oppressed fit? How can soldiers do what’s required (I am making a huge assumption here…) without destroying them?

    My dad went to Vietnam as an Army Major just after I was born, was injured, returned home, and rose through the ranks until he retired as a Major General.

    I’m not pro-war, or even pro-military necessarily, but I believe people like Hitler and Stalin ought to be stopped somehow, and those they want to desire need protection. But it seems like a pretty dangerous road to despotism coming from the side of the protectors.

    I saw the work my dad did, heard his motivations, and admire him deeply. I believe he is a great man. As a family we sacrificed much to support him in his mission. But there are lingering questions as to how this all fits together.

  50. Fr. Stephen Freeman Avatar

    The cliff, in my analogy, is something like death, or the various ways that death works in our lives. St. Paul says, “If you sow to the flesh you will reap corruption.” Corruption=death, decay, etc. Certain decisions, made through false decisions or perceptions, will eventually prove themselves to be death and decay. It might indeed take generations for it to reveal itself in the life of a culture. There are some things that virtually every religion would agree on (cliff-wise). Perceptions are not nearly so varied, classically-speaking. It’s primarily in the modern market-place of ideas that we have multiplied and magnified the notion of variety, primarily to support a highly individualized account of reality.

    If I’m talking to a real Buddhist (not some recent American variety), or a real Hindu, for example, we would find wide agreement on many things. That agreement would likely to have been shaped through centuries of experience. I do not know of a religion that thinks adultery is a good idea. I think lots of moderns feel it might be a matter of personal choice, etc., that an “open-marriage” is simply a life-style choice. It that were to become common, it would eventually take itself off a cliff.

    We are already over the cliff on many such things – but the price is being paid by children and teens – many of whom are so confused they have no idea what to think. We are experiencing an epidemic of gender confusion – so extremely far beyond any statistical norm that it can only be accounted for by a cultural fad – for which teens are not to blame. It is a cliff. Teen suicide is on the rise as is cutting and a whole host of destructive behaviors, and these things are not disconnected. They are artifacts of a cultural madness – something that would seem strange in virtually every culture. Of course, there will be some anthropologist, somewhere, who will trot out an obscure tribe and proclaim that its bizarre non-normative practice proves that there is only culturally derived realities.

    Where the religions differ, in general, would be describing what happens when you fall off the cliff, or why the cliff is there, etc. But the cliff is what it is. Reality is pretty much just that – reality.

    Another example. Male and female are so obvious that I should not have to mention it. The purpose of male and female is equally obvious. The role the family has in support and nurturing marriage and children is also obvious. There are lots of cliffs that surround it. It is only in the last few years, in a highly politicized setting, that any other account has been ventured forward – an account that would gladly destroy the entire edifice of normative civilization in order to support life-styles that will not and cannot produce and support life.

    There are plenty of cliffs: do not lie. do not kill, etc. Societies that start ignoring such things begin to fall into corruption and decay. If you want a measure for cliffs, look to the weakest. Look to children, single mothers, etc. In America, look at the prison population. The “success” and illusion of normalcy is a facade, supported by piles of discarded people who fall by the wayside in order to maintain the private delusions of a culture in madness.

  51. Dean Avatar

    By happenstance I joined the Air Force the very day the Vietnam War started. I did not go there but had many friends, relatives and acquaintances who did. Some were wounded, others killed. I can only say about just war policy that with weapons of mass destruction, it cannot be very “just.”
    Fr. Freeman has often stated, however, that dictators like Hitler and Mussolini had to be stopped. At a more manageable level : it is difficult for any soldier to kill another soldier. In WWII only one of five actually shot at another combatant. The percentage may have gone up some in recent wars but even in Vietnam, 52,000 bullets were fired for every enemy killed, Hollywood hype aside. Most killing is done from afar… bombs, artillery, etc. Look at the plight of our poor returning soldiers, young men and women, from the Middle East wars. PTSD is rampant among them. My wife’s great nephew committed suicide after returning from Iraq. I think the rate of suicide among vets is 20+ a day…Lord have mercy on them! The pain and anguish that follows the killing of another human being, created in God’s image, is part of the hard-wired reality of which Father Stephen writes so eloquently.

  52. Dean Avatar

    Fr. Freeman,
    Right before posting the above, I noticed someone else’s name and email were in my name, email slots. I think this occured to Karen, too.

  53. Kristin Avatar


    My youngest is a boy, just turned 8. He naturally has a warrior approach to the world, attacking and destroying with vom and vigor. I do not see this as inherently bad. He also has a hefty dose of compassion in his little self that will hopefully bring balance.

    I sadly had the opportunity to discuss the atom bomb with him and his 12 yo sister. War is always awful, always destroys, always ruins. And yet we must strive to protect the oppressed, and in other situations be willing to die for Truth as the martyrs have and still do.

    I could see my boy was really working on all this, trying to comprehend. It is a weighty responsibility to have children. We can be proud of my dad while at the same time recognize the Vietnam war was a horrible travesty on so many levels. The world can be so very confusing and full of sorrow.

    May the Lord have mercy on us and our world!

  54. Christopher Avatar

    Going all the way back to your original comment Chris M:

    “I don’t think it’s fair to say modern morals are “always moving toward violence” simply because they are “elevating free choice to the primary position within all things.” After all, wouldn’t the primacy of free will indicate it would be unethical to impede upon the free will of others…”

    The short answer is no. 😉 Free will as “primacy” (i.e. the highest, most primary reality and first principle) does not lead to a categorical imperative (i.e an ethical “thou shalt not pass”) because of the incoherency of a metaphysical ethics of will/choice that is on the one hand truly free, and on the other limited by something outside itself (in this case an ethical categorical imperative focused on the multiplicity of free wills in relation to each other). Where in freedom (freedom as primary first principle) is the principle of a limit (i.e. an ethic)?

    In the history of (both ethical and metaphysical) philosophy, Nietzsche is Kant’s superior (by some distance) because he lays bear this internal contradiction of Kant’s metaphysics. However, our cultural “mind” is still trying, with ever increasing desperation, to make Kant stick. It has not and can not work because it rests on idealism. Idealism, no matter how hard it tries, can’t escape it’s own monism – the fundamental first principle of “I think, therefore I AM” and a freedom based on it.

    Christianity denies even the possibility of a metaphysical ethic (i.e one grounded internally on self-sufficient grounds and “physis”) not because it is “amoral” but because it grounds anthropology – what we as human beings are – not on metaphysics but rather on our *createdness* “out of nothing”. Our first principle is thus intelligible only on a *Personal* level, and thus our freedom (and everything else about us) is based not on a (meta)physic which can be captured and held by the discursive reasoning mind, which can then go on to describe a coherent ethical system calculated from a dialectical term. The thing about Persons, and a Personal God, is that His (and thus our) freedom is created and contained in the mystery of Personhood. Personhood is uncircumscribable by ratio/mind. Rather than being rational or unrational, Personhood is supra-rational.

    Within the framework of the knowledge of good and evil (go back and read Genesis again – we “know” good and evil when we eat of the tree, we do not *become* good OR evil) morals and ethics are thus held suspended as it were (in a manner of speaking) and “worked out” within a larger and richer story of creation, freedom, sin, death, hell, salvation, and the freedom of created *personal* wills in the eschaton forever choosing the good. Such a story and Reality can not be contained in a mere moral dialectic much to the consternation of the modern moral mind.

    This story (i.e. Christianity) also “explains” (but not dialectically – personally) why scientifically speaking we are this or that organic fact (and thus not *ethically* responsible for our proclivities) and at the same time capable, in a manner much more radically free than Kant ever dreamed of, of personally owning and then crucifying those very proclivities.

  55. Michael Bauman Avatar
    Michael Bauman

    Chris M et al. A great book on the struggle involved for Christians who suffer same sex attraction is “Washed, But waiting” by Wesley Hill. My only caveat about the book is that the author falls into ontological assumptions about same sex attraction and indeed all sexuality that are not true. Easy trap given the ideological bias of our time and the powerful nature of sexual attractions though.

    Some fifty years ago when I began my Christian journey, I thought it important to find out what it meant to be a Christian man. My exploration of that question has never stopped. My failure to be one has never ceased either.

    I can say that Fr. Stephen’s statements are supported 100% by my own studies over the years. Especially the observation that each of us has disordered sexual passions. The early chapters of Genesis, the Book of Job, the Epistles to the Ephesians and the Galatians have been particularly helpful to me. Many readings, much prayer.

    The examination of my own soul has lead me to understand that shame is a huge nexus for disordered sexual passions. That shame can start very early even in infancy.

    We are created male and female and there is a cosmic synergy there that is integral to our salvation. Very little of that has to do with what we call sex. A good read on that topic is ‘Mr. God, this is Anna”. A thought provoking book by Orthodox scholar Deacon Patrick Mitchell is “The Scandal of Gender”

    Being male is an ontological reality. My disordered sexuality is not.

    If you want a rule on sexuality: chastity and celebacy before marriage; chastity and fidelity after marriage along with prayer, fasting, almsgiving and repentance.

    It is impossible for two people of the same sex to be married to one another.

    There is a great deal of Orthodox commentary both ancient and modern on the topic. There is no reason to simply fall into the morass of the nihilistuc cultural paradigm of modernity.

  56. Chris M Avatar
    Chris M

    Good Lord, Christopher. Mind = blown. See, this is why I said I don’t come to Fr. Stephen’s blog to argue, but to learn: I know when I’m outclassed. 🙂 One might be able to scrap, but that doesn’t mean one can hang in a boxing ring or in the octagon. 😀

    First of all, I’ll say this, I’m not going to pretend to understand half of what you wrote. Like Fr. Stephen, you’re on a different level from this lowly social worker! And, I read some Nietzsche in my undergrad, but I’m barely familiar with his work. You’re saying that Nietzsche’s argument was superior to Kant’s because Nietzsche recognized that true free will meant one would not suppress one’s own will in order to appease another’s and that goes back to idealism and the idea that one can only be certain that one’s own will/experience exists so why allow one’s will to be a slave to that of another that one can’t be certain even exists? But, a Christian approach to ethics, circumvents this problem by… bestowing us with personhood? Sorry if that’s not what you were getting at. I had to rush to read what you wrote and, as I mentioned, this is WAY over my head.

    Michael: Thank you for sharing your experience with me and thank you for the recommendation! Perhaps once I’m finished with Fr. Stephen’s recommended book I’ll pick this one up. Although I don’t share the feelings of some of the folks on this page regarding homosexuality and gender, I will agree with you that sexuality and shame are interconnected, at least, in our own culture.

  57. Fr. Stephen Freeman Avatar

    Chris M, I’m with you. It’s like trying to get a drink from a firehose. Sometimes, simple is better.

  58. Mario Naziris Avatar
    Mario Naziris

    Personally I find Nietzsche ‘s philosophies incredibly anti Christian and nihilistic/self destructive, but never the less interesting.

    Although he believed himself to be grounded in reality, it was his own reality of the absence of God in his own life, which was expressed through his philosophies, and provided no room or hope for any movement in morality. In fact I feel his works to be incredibly suggestive, that bad moral behaviour is acceptable or excusable. It is frightening how influential his writings have been.

    We learn from the experience of the Church that even a little bit of asceticism (aschesis) in the right way with humility can go a long way in our Spiritual development. I am by far not the best at doing this, but when we try to sacrifice something more than just food i.e, time, TV, and other passions eg lust, anger etc we start to experience a change in our fragmented humanity. Christ heals our wounded nature and unites us with Himself. This is the opposite of nihilism, we are new creations in Christ.

  59. Mario Naziris Avatar
    Mario Naziris

    Dear Father

    I hope to visit the monastery God willing next week. I will light a candle for you and your ministry and send your best wishes to Father Zacharias.

  60. Christopher Avatar

    Sorry guys! More simply, the first takeaway is that Chris M suggestion of a categorical imperative limiting the negative consequences of human freedom understood metaphysically/idealistically has already ‘played itself out’ within the western intellectual tradition of the last 500 years. This does not mean that culturally it is not hugely influential (mostly by dumb momentum) or that folks keep trying to resurrect it (think Rawlsian “theory(s) of justice”, our shared political life played out in terms of “rights”, etc.).

    The second takeaway is that (Orthodox, Classical, what Fr. Stephen points to) Christianity simply does not *fit* into the terms and structure of this way of thinking about humanity, our freedom and its relationship to morality. It is not just that “…But, a Christian approach to ethics, circumvents this problem by… bestowing us with personhood?” it is that Orthodox Christianity does not even grant “the problem” in the first place. Christian Personhood is not “inserted” into the game as it were as a 2nd half substitute – Christianity is not paying the game at all…it’s not even in the stadium as a spectator. As Fr. Stephen is continually at pains to point out, Christianity approaches what it means to be human from an entirely different set of assumptions, and these assumptions/first principles lead us to an entirely different set of “problems”, so to speak (stating it dialectically).

    In such an environment, Orthodox Christianity is truly “other”, alien, and incomprehensible. It may even appear (and in a real sense is) “unmoral” to a metaphysician, and all modern people are metaphysicians of one sort or another. Into this universe populated with moral “selves” who, despite a nagging doubt caused by our incomprehensible and unavoidable suffering and death that resist our best moral efforts to correct, reason/act/live as if they really are the source of their own moral being, comes a God who is born as one of us and reminds us of the actual and real human problem(s) by His suffering and death.

  61. Christopher Avatar


    I don’t know how to weigh the relative diabolical weight of this or that Idealism. If you separate the crude appropriation of Nietzsche’s thought from the political history of Nazi Germany, is his willingness to look into the abyss of our existential situation “worse”, or more “anti-Christian” than Kant’s idealism (or western liberal societal exaltation of the Cartesian Self)? Is his honest assessment of the arbitrariness and vacuousness of morality / good and evil in the western conception of man (anthropos) “wrong”? I don’t think so, at least not within its own terms. Is his “solution” of the heroic Self/Will unencumbered by any-thing Christianity? Certainly not.

  62. Mario Naziris Avatar
    Mario Naziris


    My humble opinion is that Kant’s idealism is no better than the opinions of Nietzche. Whilst Kant seems to provide a more flexible approach overall, and seemingly ‘moral’ in some cases it is indeed an unrealistic philosophy and smacks of self improvement without God (ego).

    Also, both philosophers can be seen as ‘true’ if we view their theories as observations of the state of the world in their own times. Both were influenced by their multi – faceted environments. I find Nietzsche particularly despairing with Kant following closely behind.

  63. Michael Bauman Avatar
    Michael Bauman

    Christipher. I read all of Nietzche as a senior in college. I spent a lot of time with him
    Neitzche is superior to Kant because he does not back down from his own internal logic. The will not bound to God is destructive and needs to be. Morality alone is not only insufficient but crippling to the proper expression of the Will.

    Of course he can still not get totally free of the reality. His Three Metamorphosis of the Spirit seems more than a bit like the Orthodox paradigm of Purification, Illumination and Theosis.

    His premise that man and our will are or can be self-determining is wholly wrong however.

    Nietzche and his fellows of the last half of the 19th century did their best to denude us of our essential inter-relationship with our God, our Creator and our Redeemer. Ultimately however their efforts lead us inexorably back to Him as the only cure for the madness of self-determination and the horrible destruction such demonic ideas bring.

    The only existence Beyond Good and Evil lies in submission to God’s love and mercy and the communion that follows.

  64. Michael Bauman Avatar
    Michael Bauman

    Chris M. I said that our disordered sexuality is intimately connected to shame, not sexuality per se.

    Also, while I appreciate your honesty regarding your feelings on homosexuality, it is not about opinions or science or philosophy or ethics. As Fr. Stephan points out there is a reality that trumps all of that.

    Hedonistic polymorphous perversity is the norm in this world, but that is not the reality of who we are sexually or any other way. Homosexuality is normal for the standards of the world just as adultery and other forms of fornication. None of that, fortunately, is who we are.

    In my life it seems I have to be stripped of everything I think I know in order to see who I am but I a stubborn disobedient man.

    May God grant you a gentler journey.

  65. Dee of St Hermans Avatar
    Dee of St Hermans

    Fr Stephen,
    In my reflections on your thoughts in your essay, I particularly appreciate your observation that Classical Christianity need demonize no one. And I see a connection of St Ephraim’s prayer with what you describe as the mystery of Christmas. Where you write of Christ’s incarnation: “This reveals human beings as bearers of the image of God and dictates the very reason for the manner we are commanded to treat others. More than this, the Incarnation reveals the reality of life as communion…”

    In the prayer it is written: ‘O Lord and King grant that I see my own sins and not to judge my brother, for blessed art Thou unto ages of ages’

    Implicit in the juxtaposition of the words ‘brother’ and ‘Thou’ is the image of God in our brother.

    St Ephraim’s prayer is typically said during Lent, but it is an important part of my Advent fast and prayers. I believe it helps me ‘get into the spirit of Christmas ‘.

    Thank you for your words Fr Stephen.

  66. Geri Priscilla Avatar
    Geri Priscilla

    Yesterday I tried to post a comment and it didn’t appear, so here is what I attempted to convey: It seems to me that the Reality of things is expressed both in Christianity and in Taoism (and others?) as The Way. It is the Way of human flourishing which goes beyond what an individual may think is for the best for themselves–being open, for example, to having Life flow in and through us to subsequent generations. I think it’s ironic that there are those today who say that we should remember that we are “just animals” and have forgotten our connection with other creatures and creation–when, in fact, the rest of Creation seems quite adept at following the Way they were created to be. It is humans who are given the choice to some degree of accepting the Way–and we don’t usually do so. I’ve wondered if the same people who espouse the need to be more connected with Nature are the same ones who support the anti-Nature aspects of our current social experiments. . .IOW–we can see the value of the Way of the Universe when it doesn’t apply to ourselves and our desires. But, the Way includes past and future generations.

  67. Chris M Avatar
    Chris M

    I’m sorry I misrepresented what you wrote then, Michael Bauman. My bad. And, I completely agree with you that reality trumps opinion. Unfortunately, finding that reality, that truth, is difficult sometimes. You and Fr Stephen have arrived at your understanding of the truth it seems through scripture, philosophy, and personal experience. I have arrived at what I perceive to be the truth through observation, measurement, and personal experience. Of course, as Fr Stephen mentioned, maybe there are problems with the data I’ve come across or the experiences I’ve had. I shared my opinion not to try to convince anyone else, but only to give a mile marker for where I am now in my journey. And, I’m glad I did! I got two book recommendations out of it! 🙂

    Thank you again Michael for your response and for asking God to grant me a gentler journey. Lately, I’ve wished that for multiple reasons – my ignorance is probably the biggest one.

  68. Chris M Avatar
    Chris M

    Whoops. Wish there was an edit function. “Observation and measurement…” makes it sound like I personally conducted a study on the health or societal effects of homosexuality. Full disclosure: I haven’t. A more appropriate description would have been something to the effect of, “I have arrived at what I perceive to be truth through a thorough exploration of peer-reviewed research and personal experience.”

  69. John Avatar

    Father Stephen, thank you for the ministry of this blog. I read regularly and am always fed.

    Going through the experience of watching my mother draw closer and closer to the end of her earthly life has given me a glimpse of what you write about here: of how the law of this world and everything in it is death, plain and simple; and how the answer to death can never be “morality” but is instead life himself breaking into our death through the incarnation, death and resurrection of Christ.

    I now find it now hard, however, to think of anything that pertains to this mortal life as truly “good”. All that I once thought “good” because “moral” now seems at best like a shadow of a good that is to come. Celebrating a worthy feast, marrying, begetting children, keeping home – and even spiritual disciplines of fasting and alms-giving – we do not do these because they are an ultimate good, or Good Itself; and indeed, to participate in them as if they were the ultimate good would be idolatry. Instead, all that we do that we call “good” is such because it points us to the future Kingdom.

    Which is what gets me to this question: It’s not like heterosexual sex or heterosexual marriage is something in itself life-giving. No matter how blessed or virtuous, it’s still dead! We seem to forget this when we say heterosexual sex = good, homosexual = bad. It’s not bad or good, they’re both simply – dead. How then do we judge between things at all? Is it just degrees of pointing to the Kingdom? Heterosexual marriage points to the Kingdom better than homosexual marriage does, so … best to bless the one but not the other?

  70. Esmée La Fleur Avatar

    John –

    I recently read a wonderful book by Daniel Opperwall called Layman in the Desert. In it he explains that the (immediate) goal and the (ultimate) telos of every Christian – whether monk or layman – is the same. The telos is the Kingdom if God (Saint Seraphim would say the acquisition of the Holy Spirit) and the goal (how we get to the telos) is purity of heart (accomplished through our efforts to practice the virtues, pray, give alms, etc) . The difference for the monk and the layman lies in the arena in which the goal and telos are pursued; for the monk it is in a monastic community and for the layman it is in the world (usually within marriage and family). Opperwall used Saint John Cassian’s The Conferences as his text to demonstrate how the ancient teachings of the desert Fathers are just as relevant to laymen as they are to monks and how to apply them in one’s life in the world.

    You are correct, all of the “good” things we are asked to do as Orthodox Christians are just the means (immediate goal) with which to attain Christ in our hearts (ultimate telos).

  71. learningtobestill2016 Avatar

    Nicholas –

    I have carefully read and considered your last post and I appreciate your thoughtful consideration of my comments. I even wrote a long and detailed response. However, when I tried to post it, my computer erased it.

    I think that may have been a signal from the Holy Spirit that I should just shut up. And, I said before, I think we have wandered far off topic.

    So I am going to let you have the last word,

    God bless.

  72. learningtobestill2016 Avatar

    The foregoing post does not belong here. It belongs in another thread. I apologize for my lack of skill in regards to posting comments.

  73. Matt Z. Avatar
    Matt Z.

    Chris M, et al,

    Fwiw, I find an ecclesiological perspective to be the best approach to discussions on sexuality (hetero- or homo-) and Christianity.

    After all, when St. Paul wrote to the Ephesians about the mystery of marriage*, he quotes the Genesis account of the creation of Eve, which Christ also quoted regarding marriage, then says he is speaking about Christ and the Church.

    It’s worth noting that, whether one reads Genesis literally of figuratively, Adam represents the whole of masculinity, and Eve the whole of femininity, yet the Church has no concept of marriage as something between a man and all women, or between a woman and all men.

    But we are not merely given an account of Adam and Eve, but of wounded Adam and side-birthed Eve**: an image of Christ crucified and the Church.

    That being the case, I suspect that marriage (and all that it entails) was given as a teacher, particularly a teacher of the relationship between Christ and the Church when it (the marriage) is properly oriented.

    From that, it follows that to introduce SSM or polygamy or any such thing would be akin to presenting a model of ecclesiology that is completely foreign to that which we have received.

    Anytime one treats marriage as something primarily involving the issue of who can “love” (or sleep with) whom, they’ve missed the point, those things are secondary.

    * I keep to marriage here because the Church does not give approval to any sexual activity outside of marriage, and lust is lust, no matter whom (or what) it is directed towards.

    ** see Fr. Stephen’s article “The Cruciform Human” (May 2015). Also recommended is Fr. Stephen’s three part reflection on male and female (July 2015).

  74. Byron Avatar

    Which is what gets me to this question: It’s not like heterosexual sex or heterosexual marriage is something in itself life-giving. No matter how blessed or virtuous, it’s still dead! We seem to forget this when we say heterosexual sex = good, homosexual = bad. It’s not bad or good, they’re both simply – dead. How then do we judge between things at all? Is it just degrees of pointing to the Kingdom? Heterosexual marriage points to the Kingdom better than homosexual marriage does, so … best to bless the one but not the other?

    John, we do not bless “homosexual marriage” because it is not the union of true marriage. The fullness of humanity is found in the union of man and woman (woman having originally come from man and thus returning the fullness of humanity to him), which, with God’s blessing, produces life. This mirrors the Trinity in creative communion; God spoke thusly in Genesis: “Let US create man in OUR image.” This is the communion of true Life creating life and it is mirrored in the sacrament of marriage, the communal, life creating union of man and woman.

  75. Chris M Avatar
    Chris M

    Thanks for the recommendations, Matt Z. I’ll look back at the old articles when I get a chance. I think the problem here is (since we’re still talking about the issue of homosexuality and same-sex marriage and my understanding of it, but doing so now through scripture), I’m SO ignorant of scripture, Church Tradition, etc, that a lot of this doesn’t even click for me yet. I mean, I know the story of Adam and Eve, but maybe it doesn’t touch me yet on the same level that it touches you. I’m so new to the Church, I feel like a pagan just hearing about (true) Christianity for the first time. It’s like I’m still worshiping Artemis or Odin or some other deity, but like the Kievan Rus, I’ve visited the Orthodox Church and felt something powerful. Now, I have a lot of people telling me what I know is wrong – that I need to accept a new truth. I’m trying to understand. I’ve prayed. I’ve gone to Divine Liturgy. Fr. Stephen’s blog has been a great and gradual way for an introvert like me to learn. The conversation that takes place in the comments section has been helpful as well. The reading recommendations are, I think, going to be incredibly helpful (at least, based on the popularity of the books suggested). I just think the scriptural argument, like Christopher’s philosophy lesson above ( 😀 ), is a little over my head (heart?) right now.

  76. Helen Avatar

    Chris M – the learning never ends, even for those born into this faith. There’s always things we learn incorrectly, or just miss. The most important thing though is you’re not alone. It is God’s Spirit itself within you that is guiding you, accompanying you, comforting you – and all of us 🙂 I rest in that knowledge often!

  77. Chris M Avatar
    Chris M

    Thanks for that, Helen. That’s very kind of you.

  78. Alan Avatar

    Kristin, you raise a great question. I’m hopeful that Michael B or Father Stephen will comment on your question.
    I am very opposed to war, especially because of what I’ve seen of US sponsored wars in the last 65 years or so (Korea, Vietnam, Kuwait, Iraq, etc). But as someone who is opposed to war, you raise a good question that has troubled me regarding my own war views. What about Hitler? Again, as a pacifist, I ask myself: was our country wrong to go to war to stop Hitler? Perhaps the question isn’t that simple. I honestly don’t know.
    I have read that much of what changed Solzenhitsyn’s own views were the atrocities that he saw his own side commit, all in the name of “stopping the nazi’s.” I’ve long loved his statement that “the line separating good and evil runs through every human heart.”
    Still, I’m troubled by the question you posed and hoping to hear from someone else on the blog on this matter.

  79. Paula Avatar

    My two cents….
    You may also want to consider the not too few Orthodox Saints that were soldiers. In a recent post Father reminded us that although these Saints were in the military in the end they became martyrs for Christ. Also, in the early Church there was a long period of time (3 years?) before soldiers were allowed to partake of the Eucharist, to allow for repentance and the healing of the soul. It is in this approach that we understand that the Church recognizes 1) God commands Thou shall not kill and 2) in a fallen world there is war and 3) the shedding of blood leaves a mark on the soul. Thus the Church allows for repentance and healing. Knowing this has helped me sort out some of my conflicting thoughts.
    The Hitler question is always the clincher, isn’t it. In the end though I think it is safe to keep from judging someone who comes to the defense of the oppressed. The other clincher question is would you defend your loved ones against an oppressor? I don’t have any family here, but I do have my animals who are family to me…and if someone or something was trying to hurt them, I’d come to their defense and believe me, in the end someone is going to get hurt.
    It’s a tough question Alan. We say we believe in one thing, and when the rubber meets the road we act just the opposite.

  80. Dean Avatar

    Paula. Good comments.
    I think anyone would do the loving thing and at least try to stop an aggressor who was trying to harm their child or loved one. That kind of love for and protection of the innocent is born within, from a good God who loves mankind.
    I was Mennonite Brethren for 25 years. Many of the young men in this denomination are C.O.s., or would be if there was a draft. Numbers of them in the past served in WWI and WWII as medics. If they could not do this others served stateside in hospitals or some other capacity. If I recall correctly, if one wants C.O. status, it must be established quite sometime before it would be needed. This could be a dated letter from a pastor/priest stating that one is opposed to serving in the military, or perhaps other ways of being on record of which I’ve forgotten.

  81. Michael Bauman Avatar
    Michael Bauman

    I believe there are people who are warriors — those who are willing to physically lay down their lives to protect others from attack. They are nobel and honorable men. They are most often abused by men of power. A true warrior will do everything in his power to make peace before taking up the sword. For some time and it is getting worse, the warrior spirit has been trained out of men. It is looked down on.

    Yet the sword is given to rulers to restrain evil and protect. That can include war if necessary. But it need not involve arms at all.

    With the nature of modern warfare the role of the warrior becomes anacronistic. Modern warfare is massive, indiscriminate total and used in the service of evil. A tool of progress. Right now the wars in the middle east are being used to to destroy Christians and our ancient communities.

    Yet the desire to protect and serve is strong in many people. But there is a disconnect between the reality and the propaganda and policy that creates and sustains war. That disconnect extends to policing as well BTW. The modern brutality is worse than anything in the past and almost no one is prepared for it. Plus our culture denies the reality of spiritual healing through repentance. PTSD is inevitable.

    Doctrinal pacifism presents it’s own dilemma: by my inaction do I allow someone to be harmed who could have been protected.

    There are no easy answers nor should their be. Violence is endemic to our state of disconnect from God and who we are. That violence is in all parts of our life not just warfare. Violence is natural to rebellion against God. Nihilism is the philosophy of rebellion and it rules our culture. That spirit of rebellion takes physical form and therefore has to be contered physically but the real enemy must be kept in mind.

    Our current culture glorifies violence in everything but war. Only those who are warriors can overcome the violence with strength and mercy. It starts by refusing to do violence to those closest to you or allowing harm to come to them if it can be prevented. Those two imperitives can come into conflict. For me, to protect should take precedence. Not everyone agrees. Either course requires courage, deep humility and obedience to God. Seek the truth and seek to be truthful with mercy rather than justice especially about oneself.

    For mercy “becometh the throned monarch better than his sceptered sway”

  82. Dee of St Hermans Avatar
    Dee of St Hermans

    Thank you for your beautiful comment, Michael.

  83. Mario Naziris Avatar
    Mario Naziris

    Michael Bauman

    As always I enjoy your comments. Do you think physical war can sometimes be a manifestation of spiritual warfare?

  84. Nicholas Stephen Griswold Avatar
    Nicholas Stephen Griswold

    As a retired service member who served from the Vietnamese War (2nd Indo China War) through Desert Storm and coming from a family that has served this country almost continually, I have watched this conversation unfold with interest. Without passing judgment on just and unjust wars, whether we should be or involved or not involved, I offer the following points:
    1) War boils down to destroying things and killing people made in the Likeness and Image of our creator.
    2) War involves killing people who are not part and party of the decisions that led to war.
    3) No matter how noble the cause killing people is always part of the equation and the damage inflicted to families, persons and infrastructure does not go away when the war stops.
    4) When we as warriors kill or wound the enemy, we are killing or wounding somebody’s father, mother, aunt, uncle, brother, sister or cousin. We are killing part of their family.
    5) War is never clear cut. It is never fair and it is never right all the time.
    An example of number 5 is an incident that my father was involved in. He served in WW II, Korea and Vietnam. He was an honorable man who loved his family, was generous to others and had a very deep religious conviction. He was a patriot who answered his country’s call. He graduated from college in 1950 just in time to return to active duty and be involved in the Korean War. (For those who want to question the justness of the war, North Korea attacked the South and the American service men who had been stationed there after the Japanese forces were removed,. Without the unprovoked attack there would have been no war.) My father was a platoon leader who landed with his platoon on Inchon Beach in the second wave. His unit was part of the force that retook Seoul from the Northern forces and went deep into North Korea during our counter offensive. One night as his platoon was moving up to an objective it had to pass through a small village. It was after midnight and very dark. Suddenly his men were under fire from all sides with rifles, machine guns and hand grenades. The platoon fought back, suppressing the fire. When the sun finally rose and they were able to search the village and determine who attacked them, they discovered that it was old women and men and young children. There were no survivors of the village population. War is ugly, war is brutal, war is indiscriminate and I have real trouble calling destroying people made in the Likeness and Image as just.
    Even in the war to stop Hitler we killed many that were not combatants. Google for pictures of Dresden after the war and ask yourself how many of the people who died there were enemy combatants. Bullets, artillery shells and bombs are indiscriminate killers. Once released they go their way and hit anything in their path. Enemy soldiers are not always volunteers. Many of those that died retreating from Kuwait in Desert Storm had been selling shoes two weeks before and were forced to join the Iraqi Army against their will.
    War is between governments and it is the people who suffer. Gone are the days when Kings rode into battle at the head of their troops. At least Henry V led his troops from the front in his dynastic struggles in the 100 Year War. I am forced to remember what Samuel said to the people of Israel when they wanted a king. Kings and elected governments do all of those things to this day and we, the people, are the ones who bleed. In my opinion, the only just war would be if those leaders went into battle against each other and we got to sit in the stands and watch.
    Sorry for the rant, but war is just ugly and destructive and those are the only adjectives that have meaning. The rest are glowing words of praise written by the victors.

  85. Michael Bauman Avatar
    Michael Bauman

    Mario, in one sense physical war is always a manifestation of spiritual warfare. A manifestation that indicates we are loosing the battle.

    In the United States we have come to a point where peacemaking is very difficult. Identity politics and ideological politics make it extremely difficult. Peacemakers are considered sellouts or enemies. Sometimes those presenting themselves as peacemakers are actually not. “All would be well if Christians stopped being so hateful and just accepted abortion, homosexuality, etc. your can’t stand against scientific progress!”

    Nihilism and the worship of power means that every other person is an enemy because God is the enemy. That is why even one’s own child in the womb is an enemy.

    Tom Leher’s old sarcastic song National Brotherhood Week written back in the 60s was quite prescient. The beginning and the end I will share: “On the white folks hate the black folks and the black folks hate the white folks all of my folks hate all of your folks, it’s American as apple pie…..Step up and shake the hand of someone you can’t stand, it’s only for a week so have no fear. Be grateful that it doesn’t last all year.”

    In the last fifty years his sarcastic observations have become more and more real. That is the darkness. But the light is here too in the Church but we have to fight for it even here. It is a spiritual battle, not an ideological one.

    We have to rouse ourselves crying holy holy holy art thou O God, through the Theotokos, have mercy on us.

    Sometimes that means physically challenging evil determined that Thou shalt not pass!

    The risk is great to those who do that.

  86. Alan Avatar

    To Paula, Dean, Michael, and Nicholas…..thank you all very much! I’m indebted to you all for these most insightful comments.

  87. Mario Naziris Avatar
    Mario Naziris

    Michael Bauman

    Thank you for your blessed reply. I chuckled at the American folk song, but it is very pertinent to our current spiritual environment. It is as though we are all actors (in Greek ‘Hypocrites’, and sometimes it is even difficult for us in keeping it real.

    “Nihilism and the worship of power means that every other person is an enemy because God is the enemy. That is why even one’s own child in the womb is an enemy.”

    Your paragraph above I find similar to what Father Zacharias at the monastery was saying: ” We are enemies of God, our sin creates enmity with God.”

  88. Dee of St Hermans Avatar
    Dee of St Hermans

    Nicholas I was hoping you might write your perspective given your experiences in war. Thank you so much for sharing them in the light of the Orthodox Christian faith. Too frequently I hear from self professed Christians in the US an enthusiasm for war in which they treat their violence upon others as a “crusade for God”.

  89. Dean Avatar

    We’ve had such good notes from Nicholas and Michael.
    The younger George Bush said something near the start of the Iraqi war that has stayed with me. On an aircraft carrier he boasted about what we could do to the Iraqis, ” Bring ’em on!” Now I’m sure one-on-one he would be an amiable chap…we could talk about our paintings, perhaps over a beer on a hot Texas evening. However, when he said that I turned to my wife, dismayed and said, “Oh, no!” Then the indiscriminate bombing of Baghdad, the “shock and awe.” Well, the Iraqis weren’t the only ones who suffered from this hyperbole. We did, as well as our poor Orthodox Iraqi brothers and sisters, who once made up 10% of the population, now decimated and dispersed.

  90. Esmée La Fleur Avatar

    Nicholas – Thank you for those excellent points and examples.

  91. Learning to be still Avatar
    Learning to be still

    Karen – Thank you for that wonderful prayer! I will treasure it always.

  92. Learning to be still Avatar
    Learning to be still

    Michael Bauman – You said, “Having studied the approach to war extensively with my son I can say there is no just war. War is always the result of sin and evil.” You expressed that well. Thank you. I agree.

  93. Byron Avatar

    Sometimes that means physically challenging evil determined that Thou shalt not pass!

    It is well to remember that we ourselves are wounded in this challenge. Father has mentioned several times how, even in a just cause, violence will wound our souls. We should remember that and pray always for those caught in the trials of these dark times. Lord have mercy.

  94. Michael Bauman Avatar
    Michael Bauman

    Bryon, yes we ourselves are wounded. But sometimes those wounds cannot be avoided. Too often they are the result of machinations of others. Even those can be healed. Our culture does not allow for the grief and the repentance necessary for that healing though.
    If anyone doubts the need to stand there is a well documented story about the night before the battle of El Alemain which was the last stand of the British and American troops against the Nazis in North Africa. Many soldiers reported being visited by St. George encouraging them for the battle to come. The British and American troops defeated the Nazis. That battle was a turning point in the war both strtegically and attitudinally.
    The Christian mandate is always about peacemaking (an active verb). Nevertheless there are times when the force of arms is necessary to create a space for peace to be made. Appeasement is not peacemaking and neither is relying on arms alone. Tragedy results in both cases.

  95. John Avatar

    Sorry to go off the current topic (righteous war) here, but I’m really wrestling with this death vs. life thing and was wondering if someone could help me out.

    The moral model is insufficient if not completely wrong-headed because I as a human being don’t have a moral problem; I have an ontological/reality problem. Everything I cling to and pursue – financial stability, a “healthy lifestyle” through diet and exercise, a well ordered home, a disciplined way of interacting with others – is ultimately a meaningless attempt to postpone death, and is doomed to failure. Stability, health, order and discipline, which are often seen as moral goods or the good consequences of the moral life are each not only tainted with death, but ultimately end in death, and I am thus guaranteed disappointment and unhappiness if I pursue these things as goods in themselves. The attempt at a well-ordered life through morality is doomed to fail. It is not the end which I seek.

    The incarnation, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ is not God’s attempt to give us moral guidance to follow, but is instead God’s solution to the problem of death. Christ enters into our death, into our mortal life; he fills it with himself, with Life itself, and overthrows the power of death, so that we, by participating in Him, by uniting ourselves to His life, may no longer die but live. This is the true end which all men seek.

    My question is: To what extent does this new true life begin here and now? It is not as if becoming an Orthodox Christian and participating in the life of Christ through the sacraments has fully given me Christ’s life. Though I partake of true life Himself in the Eucharist, I still sin, and I still die. How to explain this? Is anything truly “good” – that is, immortal because Christ’s – in this life?

  96. Fr. Stephen Freeman Avatar

    The “death” problem is solved, not by eliminating it, but by “trampling down death by death.” It is a paradox. In His death on the Cross, Christ makes His death the means of destroying death. This, in turn, is the same path we ourselves travel. Every moment of every day, there is the invitation and possibility (even a commandment) to live in that very manner. It is described in the letter to the Philippians:

    Let this mind be in you which was also in Christ Jesus, who, being in the form of God, did not consider it robbery to be equal with God, but made Himself of no reputation, taking the form of a bondservant, and coming in the likeness of men. And being found in appearance as a man, He emptied Himself and became obedient to the point of death, even the death of the cross. Therefore God also has highly exalted Him and given Him the name which is above every name, that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those in heaven, and of those on earth, and of those under the earth, and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.

    Therefore, my beloved, as you have always obeyed, not as in my presence only, but now much more in my absence, work out your own salvation with fear and trembling; for it is God who works in you both to will and to do for His good pleasure. Do all things without complaining and disputing, that you may become blameless and harmless, children of God without fault in the midst of a crooked and perverse generation, among whom you shine as lights in the world, holding fast the word of life, so that I may rejoice in the day of Christ that I have not run in vain or labored in vain. Yes, and if I am being poured out as a drink offering on the sacrifice and service of your faith, I am glad and rejoice with you all. For the same reason you also be glad and rejoice with me. (Phil. 2:5-18)

    Walking “with the same mind” in which we humble (or empty) ourselves – such as without complaining or disputing – being blameless and harmless – is not a “moral” act – in is an act of our own being, united with the being of Christ, doing in Him and through Him what He Himself did. And this “walking” is itself life-giving and good – because it is Christ-in-us doing the work (“for it is God who works in you both to will and to do for His good pleasure”).

    It is the very essence of love. It is the heart of all of Christ’s commandments: love one another, forgive your enemies, give without expecting in return, etc. Every commandment of Christ has the character of the way of the Cross and serves as a commentary on a life conformed to the Cross.

    And, at the heart of the paradox, this work that we do has a “hidden” character to it (“Our life is hid with Christ in God” – Col. 3:3). If this work were not “hidden” – then it would become an object of a perverted desire to grasp and control it. We would want to have victory over death for its own sake and not for Christ’s sake making it a temptation. It’s hiddenness is of a piece with the self-emptying.

    The Christian faith is one of “revealing,” of making visible what is hidden. The way of self-emptying love is the visible sign in this life of the victory over death. But what is hidden will have an ultimate revealing. You can hear this in the passage from Wisdom:

    But the souls of the righteous are in the hand of God, and no torment will ever touch them. In the eyes of the foolish they seemed to have died, and their departure was thought to be an affliction, and their going from us to be their destruction; but they are at peace. For though in the sight of men they were punished, their hope is full of immortality. Having been disciplined a little, they will receive great good, because God tested them and found them worthy of himself; like gold in the furnace he tried them, and like a sacrificial burnt offering he accepted them. In the time of their visitation they will shine forth, and will run like sparks through the stubble. They will govern nations and rule over peoples, and the Lord will reign over them for ever. (Wis. 3:1-8 RSV)

    It is spoken of in many other places. Romans 8 speaks of the “revealing” or “manifestation” of the “Sons of God.” St. John’s first Epistle says that when we see Christ at the end of all things, “We shall be like Him,” etc.

    The more we walk in this way of life – self-emptying love – with Christ working in us – the more it is given to us to know its truth. It “reveals” itself to us inwardly.

    All of this seems to vary in measure from person-to-person – “according to the measure of faith.” For some it is a small thing. For others, it would seem that they were already at the end, even in this world.

    I’ll write more later – but I’ll make this a first installment of an answer.

  97. Christopher Avatar


    Many years ago I I once asked a priest what was Jesus waiting for, why has not the second coming occurred yet? Perhaps this is a variation on your line of questioning. In the end for me at least I have to give up on the demand that the eschaton happens now, that the truly good is no longer mixed with a bit of evil NOW. For me I have to learn to live with the ambiguity, the perplexity, and the plain old suffering of a life and time that is still being redeemed. Psalm 89/90 (Moses) reminds me that the days are evil and yet at the very same time Redemption is occurring even now…

  98. Dean Avatar

    Fr. Stephen,
    Marvelous answer to John! As has been said before, many of your answers to commenters are every bit as good as an article itself. I await your further reply.

  99. Learning to be still Avatar
    Learning to be still

    David K – I think it is important to remember that The Triumph of the Will led to the Holocaust. That is why some of call the Holocaust the crowning achievement of the Enlightenment. It is an ironic statement, of course. The point is that if you follow the ideas of the Enlightenment to their logical conclusion, you get the Holocaust.

  100. Dino Avatar


    To the extent that we ‘die to this world’, and ‘die to self’ – here and now, in small and big occasions – to that same extent we participate of what is the eternal, immortal, true “good”, even in this life. That is the experience of the saints.
    (even just the ‘wanting’ to do this ‘dying to self and world for Christ’ qualifies here),

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